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Plano de Negócios melhor que o Sebrae

Como funciona um Plano de Negócios do Sebrae? Saiba como criar um ainda melhor, por meio de ferramentas práticas como o “Business Model Canvas”

Muitas pessoas procuram na internet pelo Plano de Negócios do Sebrae. Trata-se de uma ferramenta bastante útil, para empresas de todos os portes, especialmente aquelas que estejam e processo de criação ou reformulação. Entretanto, há também quem reclame do caráter pouco prático e visual deste tipo de ferramenta. Daí, nossa ideia de, neste arquivo, propor o Business Model Canvas, que permite um planejamento bem mais objetivo e visual.

Junte as ideias aqui e desenvolva da forma que for mais prática para a sua realidade, afinal, o melhor plano do mundo é aquele que funciona para a sua empresa!

Mais do que um guia para criar ou ampliar seus negócios, de acordo com o Sebrae, a elaboração de um Plano de Negócios é fundamental para o sucesso de qualquer empreitada profissional. Assim como um mapa, o plano de negócios diminui os riscos da empreitada, ajuda a conquistar sócios e investidores (transmitindo-lhes segurança), estabelece parcerias com fornecedores e clientes e mostra o caminho das pedras a ser seguido.

Como é estruturado um Plano de Negócios?

Fizemos o roteiro abaixo para sintetizar os passos propostos pelo Sebrae ao elaborar um Plano de Negócios. Se você não tiver tempo para ler os manuais do Sebrae, siga este roteiro!

1) Resumo dos principais pontos do plano de negócios

Qual tipo de negócio você pretende montar/ampliar, quais serão os principais produtos e/ou serviços a serem oferecidos, quem é o seu público-alvo (principais clientes), qual a localização da empresa, qual o capital – valores – a serem investidos, qual será o seu faturamento mensal, o lucro do seu negócio e em quanto tempo o capital investido deverá retornar.

2) Análise de mercado

Ao conhecer bem seus clientes você será capaz de encontrar e oferecer soluções que atendam suas expectativas. Nessa etapa, você terá que examinar e mapear as boas práticas e deficiências de seus clientes e concorrentes, além de seus possíveis fornecedores (matéria-prima, procedência, entre outros).

3) Plano de Marketing

Nesta etapa é muito importante a descrição completa dos itens que serão fabricados, vendidos ou dos serviços que serão prestados. O mesmo serve para os serviços, para os quais deverão ser informadas as características e garantias. Nessa fase você deve determinar preços, estratégias promocionais e estrutura de comercialização além da localização atrativa para sediar seu negócio.

4) Plano Operacional

Um bom esquema de distribuição dos setores das áreas de sua empresa vão ajudar no aumento da produtividade e evitar o desperdício ou retrabalho. Esse também é o momento de estimar a sua capacidade de trabalho, que é o quanto pode ser produzido ou quantos clientes podem ser atendidos com a estrutura existente. Deverá também descrever todos os processos pertinentes, etapa por etapa, detalhando como será a fabricação dos produtos, a venda de mercadorias, a prestação dos serviços e, até mesmo, as rotinas administrativas. Além disso, é necessário estimar a necessidade de pessoal a ser contratado (incluindo terceiros).

5) Plano Financeiro

Para determinar o total de recursos a ser investido para que a empresa comece a funcionar, você deverá definir os investimentos fixos (bens que devem ser adquiridos para dar início às operações), capital de giro (recursos necessários como financiamentos e pagamentos de despesas) e investimentos pré-operacionais (gastos realizados antes do início da operação da empresa). Estime o faturamento mensal com base nas informações de seus clientes e da concorrência, o custo unitário de matéria-prima, materiais diretos e terceirizações, e, dos custos de comercialização. De posse de todas as estimativas será possível calcular a lucratividade e a rentabilidade prováveis de sua empresa, assim como o prazo de retorno do investimento.

6) Construção de cenários

Ao finalizar seu plano de negócio, simule valores e situações preparando cenários nos quais o seu negócio obtenha resultados negativos (queda nas vendas e/ou aumento dos custos) ou positivos (crescimento do faturamento e diminuição despesas). Com esses cenários você deverá pensar em ações preventivas ou que potencializem os resultados positivos. Crie seu plano “B”.

7) Análise da Matriz FOFA

A matriz FOFA, em inglês “matriz SWOT”, serve para analisar e detectar pontos fortes, fracos, oportunidades e ameaças para seu negócio. Feita em quadrantes, você deverá escrever os fatores positivos e negativos para a implantação do negócio.

As iniciais “FOFA” dizem respeito a analisar aspectos positivos (forças, oportunidades) e negativos (fraquezas, ameaças) de uma empresa. Dois desses aspectos são internos à empresa (forças, fraquezas) e dois são externos (ameaças, oportunidades). Assim, esta ferramenta colabora com uma análise do cenário interno e externo a partir do qual seu plano emergirá.

swot fofa matriz

 

8) Avaliação do Plano de Negócio

Planejamento e adaptação são as palavras de ordem para quem quer abrir, ampliar ou revitalizar um negócio. Esse plano deve ser revisitado de tempos em tempos para que seja um instrumento de avaliação constante de sua empresa, mantendo-o próximo de seus objetivos.

A ferramenta Business Model Canvas

Para adaptar esse Plano para uma vertente mais voltada ao lado pragmático e à área de vendas e posicionamento de mercado, existem algumas ferramentas de planejamento estratégico no mercado como o “Business Model Canvas” que agrega alto valor ao seu plano pré-existente. Trata-se de um mapa visual pré-formatado que conceitualiza o seu negócio, definindo os principais fluxos e processos. Esse modelo permite uma análise de seu modelo de atuação no mercado, e introduzirá a área de vendas em seu planejamento.

canvas business model plano negócios estratégia

Use cada quadrinho para preencher (de forma bem resumida) os aspectos principais do planejamento da empresa: atividades-chave, parceiros-chave, recursos-chave, custos estimados, proposições de valor (diferenciais para posicionar-se no mercado), estratégias de relacionamento com o cliente, clientes (perfil do seu público-alvo), canais de distribuição (formas de venda: loja física, internet, varejo, atacado etc.), receitas estimadas.

Como agregar valor e ampliar as vendas utilizando o modelo Canvas:

1) Agregue ao seu plano uma proposta de valor.

Mais do que uma missão, você deverá identificar os diferenciais de seu produto/serviço que trarão valor aos seus clientes e inseri-los ao seu plano de negócios.

2) Definição clara de objetivos, estratégia e estrutura da equipe de vendas (canais).

Assim como um plano operacional detalhado, a definição dos canais vai deixar claro como o cliente vai comprar e receber seu produto ou serviço. A definição dos melhores canais devem ser acompanhada por treinamento especializado para a equipe de vendas que, por sua vez, deve estar alinhada e se identificar com a estratégia estabelecida.

3) Relacionamento com os clientes.

Fundamental para o sucesso de seu plano, o relacionamento é baseado em pesquisa (conhecimento do cliente) e base de dados (manutenção de dados atualizados). Somente conhecendo bem seu cliente e suas preferências será possível criar um relacionamento duradouro. Todas as informações relevantes devem constar em um sistema ou planilha para que cada contato seja eficaz. Assim como no plano de marketing, você deverá definir e detalhar como será esse relacionamento. Tenha em mente quem são seus clientes potenciais, eventuais, regulares e defensores para atendê-los de acordo com suas necessidades específicas.

4) Defina as parcerias e os recursos principais.

Mantenha o foco em seu plano operacional e no plano financeiro para melhor se adequar às expectativas de seus clientes. Parceiros com bom histórico e recursos que possuam boa avaliação evitam desperdícios e gastos desnecessários.

5) Obtenha receita por meio de propostas de valor.

Com base nos diferenciais de seus produtos e serviços, ponha em prática seu plano de negócios mantendo o foco nas soluções para seus clientes. O mapeamento da concorrência também vai ajudá-lo a entender como está o seu mercado e levantará pontos importantes para que seu produto/serviço sejam inovadores e criativos

6) Fique de olho na estrutura de custos.

O objetivo principal de qualquer empresa é o lucro, portanto, todo o cuidado é pouco quando falamos sobre os custos envolvidos na implementação de um serviço ou produto. Negocie, feche parcerias duradouras e mantenha os custos equilibrados, evitando despesas extras. Boa parte de seu planejamento deve estar focada em seu plano financeiro

Um planejamento sistemático e permanente é fator vital para o sucesso nas vendas, permitindo um monitoramento eficiente das metas e quotas pré-estabelecidas. O uso de ferramentas como o Canvas dão o suporte necessário para traçar as estratégias e ampliar as oportunidades de sua empresa no mercado de trabalho.

Boas vendas!

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  47. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  51. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  53. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  54. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  56. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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