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O que são Eficiência, Eficácia e Efetividade?

Você sabe a diferença entre eficiência e eficácia? E entre essas e efetividade? É comum haver confusão sobre o que são esses termos, mas, agora, vamos resolver esses conceitos de uma vez por todas.

eficacia eficiencia efetividade

Para Peter Drucker, conhecido como o pai da administração moderna, assim devemos distinguir esses termos:

O que é Eficiência?

“A eficiência consiste em fazer as coisas de um jeito certo, isto é, da forma como foi projetada. É normalmente ligada ao nível operacional, bem como executar operações com menos recursos – menos tempo e menos orçamento, menos pessoas, menos matéria-prima”.

O que é Eficácia?

“Já a eficácia é fazer a coisa certa, ou seja, fazer o que é preciso ser feito: geralmente está relacionada ao nível gerencial.”

O que é Efetividade?

Efetividade é escolher aquilo que cause mais impacto positivo para a vida das pessoas e do planeta.

Exemplos de eficiência, eficácia e efetividade

As definições parecem um pouco similares, certo? Com exemplo, tudo ficará mais fácil.

Um padeiro precisa comprar os itens para produzir seus pães de acordo com o manual da padaria. Precisa usar o mínimo de recursos e de tempo, mas precisa, antes de tudo, seguir os procedimentos.

Ele precisa ser eficiente: fazer as coisas do jeito certo.

Agora, nem tudo que é eficiente é eficaz. Ele pode estar seguindo o roteiro (eficiência), mas fazendo tarefas pouco importantes, que promovem perda de tempo e pouco valor agregado ao produto (nada eficaz).

Ele está sendo eficiente, mas não eficaz.

Para ser eficiente e eficaz, ele precisa escolher as tarefas que agregam valor à produção dos pães (tarefas produtivas, eficazes) e seguir essas tarefas otimizando recursos (eficência).

Mas, um trabalho pode ser eficiente e eficaz, mas não ser efetivo. Imagine que a comunidade local não gosta daquele tipo de pão, ou não sabe que a padaria o está vendendo, ou o padeiro esteja deteriorando sua saúde para produzir esse tipo de pão, ou imagine que a padaria cause um grande impacto ambiental para produzir o pão.

Então, um produto é efetivo quando tem um benefício ótimo junto às pessoas, sejam internas (colaboradores) quanto externas (clientes e sociedade).

Em síntese

Um funcionário a fazer, com extrema eficiência, tarefas completamente inúteis, são os chamados “apagadores de incêndio”.

E este é exatamente onde o papel se torna fundamental: escolher primeiro as tarefas mais eficazes, para depois pensar em como executá-las com eficiência.

Isso tudo, é claro, pensando na efetividade social e comercial do que está sendo produzido.

Imagine que há um vazamento de água no escritório do conselho de administração. O primeiro funcionário, imediatamente, corre atrás de um pano, um balde e um rodo para remover toda a água do ambiente. Ele foi eficiente, porque ele fez certo o que deve ser feito.

Alguns anos mais tarde, mais água vaza para alagar a sala, e o nosso colaborador volta a correr atrás de um pano, um balde e um rodo para remover toda a água. Esta é a descrição típica de um “apagador de gelo” eficiente, mas que não realiza tarefas eficazes.

Por outro lado, o segundo funcionário buscou observar toda a sala e tentar encontrar a fonte para o surgimento de tanta água, concluiu que veio exclusivamente do banheiro instalado dentro da sala. Uma vez no interior do banheiro, ele notou o vazamento e propôs o imediato reparo. Este empregado foi eficaz porque ele fez o que era esperado para se fazer, para solucionar o caso com a máxima produtividade.

Em suma, o papel do líder é se você perguntar constantemente como levar as pessoas a fazer as coisas certas (eficácia), de um jeito certo (menor uso de recursos e tempo, isto é, eficiente), com o impacto social e comercial o mais positivo possível.

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