Home > Sustentabilidade > Economia circular – Você sabe o que é Cradle-to-Cradle®? (Parte 1 de 3)

Economia circular – Você sabe o que é Cradle-to-Cradle®? (Parte 1 de 3)

O que é economia circular e Cradle-to-Cradle®? Qual a diferença desta estratégia e o velho extrair-transformar-descartar? Hoje apresentamos o primeiro da série de três artigos sobre o tema.

Por muito tempo, a estratégia extrair-transformar-descartar (take-make-waste, em inglês) foi aplicada na industria sem um planejamento ambiental adequado. Atualmente, revistas, jornais, programas de televisão e portais de notícias online reportam, constantemente, desastres ecológicos,  problemas no meio ambiente e dificuldades na produção de certos produtos. Pode-se compreender que o modelo de produção atual está chegando em seu limite físico. Este é um problema global. Assim, uma nova estratégia para a produção em larga escala surgiu: a economia circular.

A economia circular é o resultado de um equilíbrio entre os impactos ambientais e a vantagem financeira da produção de um produto. Seu objetivo é maximizar a eficiência dos recursos utilizados, criando um sistema ou loop fechado onde, idealmente, não existe lixo ou impacto ambiental, mantendo a qualidade do produto e seu potencial econômico

Por ser um conceito ainda novo no mercado, segundo Cialani e Ulgiati (2015, disponível em inglês), o estudo sobre economia circular e sua aplicação começou no fim dos anos 90 e início dos anos 2000. Hoje, pode-se observar que a maior parte destes estudos vêm da China e da Europa.

Este conceito foi chamado de Cradle-to-Cradle® (Berço-ao-Berço, em português) e divide seus processos em dois ciclos: ciclo ambiental e ciclo técnico. Resumidamente, o ciclo biológico é planejado buscando utilizar materiais bio-degradáveis e bio-renováveis, enquanto o ciclo técnico é responsável por garantir que materiais inorgânicos possam ser reutilizados, tornando-os facilmente desmontáveis e reutilizáveis em outros produtos, por exemplo.

Apesar da economia circular parecer, em um primeiro momento, similar ao conceito clássico de produção sustentável, o objetivo dos dois conceitos é diferente. Produção sustentável tem como objetivo ser eco-eficiente e, assim,  reduzir a produção de lixo e o impacto ecológico. Economia circular é eco-efetiva. Neste approach, não adianta “ser menos mau, tem que ser bom”.

Gostou do assunto? Assista ao TED Talk sobre Cradle-to-Cradle® de William McDonough.

Semana que vem, o ciclo ambiental, o ciclo técnico e a certificação Cradle-to-Cradle® serão abordados de maneira mais detalhada.

Até mais!

Referências:

CIALANI, Catia; ULGIATI, Sergio. A review on circular economy: The expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems. JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION. 2015. Disponível em: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/283188635. Acesso em: 03/01/2016

Eduardo Polloni Silva on EmailEduardo Polloni Silva on Linkedin
Eduardo Polloni Silva
Aluno de graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Morou um ano na Noruega como bolsista do programa Ciência sem Fronteiras, onde estudou e teve a oportunidade de estagiar na área de Óleo & Gás. Possui certificações em Six Sigma, Scrum e Marketing. Atualmente, é colunista semanal do portal N&C e tradutor de palestras TEDx Talk. Possui interesse em estratégia empresarial, gerencimento de projetos, sustentabilidade e empreendedorismo.

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